Current weather conditions in kanpur
History & Location
Nestled on the banks of the eternal Ganga, Kanpur stands as one of North
Indias major industrial centres with its own historical,
religious and commercial importance.Believed to be founded by
king Hindu Singh of the erstwhile state of Sachendi, Kanpur was
originally known as `Kanhpur. Historically, Jajmau on the
eastern outskirts of present day Kanpur is regarded as one of the
most archaic tounships of Kanpur district.
Upto the 1st half of the 18th century Kanpur continued to survive as an insignificant village. Its fate, however, took a new turn soon after. In May 1765, Shuja-ud-daula, the Nawab Wazir of Awadh, was defeated by the British near Jajmau. It was probably at this time that strategic importance of the site of Kanpur was realised by the British. European businessmen had by this time gradually started establishing themselves in Kanpur. In order to ensure protection to their lives and property the `Awadh local forces were shifted here in 1778. Kanpur passed into British hands under the treaty of 1801 with Nawab Saadat Ali Khan of Awadh. This forms a turning point in the history of Kanpur. Soon Kanpur became one of the most important military station of British India. It was declared a district on 24th March 1803.
Kanpur was soon to become the epicentre of the outbreak of 1857, as some of the leading luminaries of the War of Independence hailed from her, namely Nana Sahib, Tantiya Tope, Azimoolah Khan and Brigadier Jwala Prasad. The three strategic events of the 1857 war at Kanpur were the fight at `wheelers entrenchment, the `massacre at Sati Chaura Ghat and the `Bibighar massacre. Nana Sahib had declared independence on th 7th of June 1857 at Kanpur. The British under Commander Hugh Wheeler retreated into a shallow earch entrenchment in the cantonment area, later known in history as `wheelers entrenchment. The English garrison surrendered in the last week of June 1857 on terms of safe passage to Allahabad. But when on the morning of 27th June, the soldiers along with the women and children were about to embark into the boats at Sati Chaura Ghat, fighting broke out and most of the men were killed. The survivors, women and children were rescued who were imprisoned into the Savada Kothi and later shifted to Bibighar in the `cantonment magistrates compound. But when it became clear the relieving forces under General Havelock were nearing the city and defeat was inevitable, the captives-all women and children, were massacred and their dismembered bodies buried in the well of the compound on 15th July 1857. The Bibighar was dismantled by the British and reoccupation of Kanpur and a `memorial railing and a cross raised at the site of the well. The well is now bricked over. Only remains of a circular ridge survive, which can be still seen at the Nana Rao Park. The Kanpur Memorial Church `The all soul cathedral was raised in honour of the fallen at the north-east corner of Wheelers entrenchment in 1862 by the British. The marble gothic screen with famous `mournful scarf was transferred to the churchyard of All Souls after independence in 1947, and in its place a bust of Tantiyu Tope installed as Nana Rao Park.
After 1857, the development of Kanpur was even more phenomenal. Government Harnes and Saddlery Factory was started for supplying leather material for army in 1860, followed by Cooper Allen & Co. in 1880. The first cotton textile mill, the Elgin Mills were started in 1862 and Muir Mills in 1882.
Today besides being the most industrialised region of the state, Kanpur is also an important educational centre, with institutions like Harcourt Butler Technological Institute, Agricultural College, Indian Institute of Technology, GSVM Medical College, National Sugar Institute and Government Textile Institute being located here. Apart from playing a stellar role in the development of the country as a whole, Kanpur has also been instrumental in making an unforgettable contribution to the Indian freedam struggle. A favourite centre of activities of stalwarts like Nanarao Peshwa, Tantiya Tope, Sardar Bhagat Singh and Chander Shekhar Azar among others, Kanpur is also the birth place of Shyamlal Gupta `Parshad, composer of the famous patriotic ditty `Vijayee Vishwa Tiranga Pyara. The propagation and popularisation of Hindi also owes much to this city, with great Hindu literatures like Acharya Mahavir Parasad Dwivedi, Ganesh Shanker Vidyarthi, Pratap Narain Mishra, Acharya Gaya Prasad Shukla `Sanehi and Balkrishna Sharma `Navin having hailed from here.
Fairs & Festivals
Deepwali, Deshara, Holi, Raksha-Bandhan, Janma-Asthami, Ram Navami, Shiv-Ratri, Kartik Poornima, Magh Poornima and Makar Sankranti Mela. The city is full of lights in Deepawali ,colorful in Holi festivals
Chakeri Airport, Kanpur, has become operational since January 1996 and is serviced by U.P. Air, Archana Airways and private airlines. Apart from this the nearest airport is Amausi, Lucknow, 65 km.
Connections to all the major stations of the country by express, super-fast and passenger trains. Some of the important trains that pass through Kanpur Central are;
Kanpur is connected by road with all the major cities of the country. It is situated on National Highway No. 2 on the Delhi-Agra-Allahabad-Calcutta route and on National Highway No. 25 on the Lucknow-Jhansi-Shivpuri route. Distances from some destinations in the region:
The mound of Jajmau, on the eastern end of the city occupies a high place among ancient sities of the region. Excavations of the mound were undertaken during 1957-58 which unearthed antiquities ranging from 600 BC to 1600 AD.
Jajmau,known as Siddhapuri in ancient times, is supposed to have been the kingdom of Yayati, the Pauranic king and the high mound overhanging the Ganga is known as the site of his fort.
Today, Jajmau houses the Siddhnath and Siddha Devi temples and the mousoleium of Makhdum Shah Ala-ul-Haq, the famous Sufi saint, built by Firoz Shah Tughlaq in 1358. A mosque built by Kulich Khan in 1679 also stands here.
Shri Radhakrishna Temple (J.K. Temple)
Beautifully constructed, J.K. temple is a boon to the devotees. Built by J.K. Trust this architectural delight is a unique blend of ancient architecture with the. modern. The even-level roofs o the mandaps have been provided with adequate ventilation for sufficient light and air. Among the five shrines that the temple has the central one s consecrated to Shri Radhakrishna and the other are adorned with idols of Shri Laxminarayan, Shri. Ardhanarishwar, Shri Narmadeshwar and Shri Hanuman.
Jain Glass Temple
It is situated in Maheshwari Mohal behind the Kamla Tower. It is a beautiful temple highly decorated with glass and enamel works.
Allen Forest Zoo
The Kanpur Zoo was opend in 1971 and ranks among one of the best zoos in the country. It is an ideal place for outdoor life and picnics amongst picturesque surroundings. Phone: 543678.
Lies to the west of the Agricultural College in immediate neighbourhood of the Allen Forest. It is under the possession of Singhania family and is a beauty spot of the city. There is a swimming tank with an equipment for producing artificial waves and suitable arrangement for lighting. Besides parks and a canal with facilities for boating, a zoo is also maintained.
Kamla Retreat also houses a museum which has a good collection of historical and archaeological artifacts. Visitors are allowed only with prior permission from:; Deputy General Manager (Administration), Kamla Tower, Kamalanagar, Kanpur, UP. Phone: 311478 & 311479.
It is a beautiful park in the heart of the city on the Mall Road. In the centre of the park is a building known as Ganesh Shanker Vidyarthi Memorial. After the first World War there was an Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Hospital in this building. It is now known as Ganesh Udyan.
Nana Rao Park
To the west of Phool Bagh is located the Nana Rao Park. It is the site of the `Bibighar of 1857. The Park was renamed as Nana Rao Park after independence.
The Kanpur Memorial Church (All Souls Cathedral)
The Kanpur Memorial Church was built in 1875, in honour of the British who lost their lives in the war of 1857. The Church was designed by Walter Granville, architect of the east Bengal Railway. The complete Church in Lombardic gothic style is handsomely executed in bright red brick, with polychrome dressings. The interior contains monuments to the mutiny, including several memorial tablets.
In the separate enclosure to the east of the church is the Memorial Garden, approached through two gateways. Here the handsome carved gothic screen, designed by Henry Yule, stands. Its centre is occupied by the beautiful carved figure of an angle by Baron Carlo Marochetti, with crossed arms, holding palons, symbol of peace. Originally the statue and the screen stood in the Municipal Gardens in the centre of the city, over the site of the Bibighar well. The memorials were relocated here after independence in 1948. The Military Cemetery on the edge of the cantonment contains a number of interesting graves from the late 19th century. Within the city the king Edward VII memorial hall is noteworthy and Christ Church building, built in 1840.The city which once was termed as manchester of India for its matured cotton industry. The city which hosted (and still hosts) the world famous 'Lal Imli' woolen factory, industries such as LML, Pan Parag, ICI Limited (now known as Duncuns Fertilisers), one of the largest leather industries in the world and myriad cotton mills. The city which boosts one of the lagrest number of defence establishments; To name a few Hindustan Aeronautical Limited (HAL), DMSRDE, Small Arms Factory(SAF), Field Gun Factory and Parachutte factory
Harcourt Butler Technological Institute
The Harcourt Butler Technological Institute was established in 1920 at Kanpur and is engaged in imparting technical training and industrial research. Phone: 294851, 294852, 294853, 294854 & 294855.
Indian Institute of Technology
One of the five IITs, set up in 1959 at Kanpur, it provides education in the fields of engineering, technology, science and humanities. Phones: 250151 & 257878.
Chandra Shekhar Azar University of Agriculture & Technology
Established in 1957 to provide education of agriculture, animal husbandry and veterinary science for the benefit of rural people.
Computer Education Centers
Among other sites worth visiting at Kanpur are the Hanuman temple-Panki, Anandeshwar temple, Jageshwar temple, Dwarikadhish temple, Prayagnarayan temple, Kailash temple, Buddhadevi temple, Kherepati temple, Varahidevi temple, Bhairav temple and Tulsi Upvan (Moti Jheel).
Other Places of Interest
Other Places of Interest are; Tapeshwaridevi Temple, Vankhahdeshwar Temple, Anandeshwar Temple, Moti Jheel Tulsi Upvan-Children Park, Kamla Retreat, Zoological Garden, Nanarao Park-Ganesh Udyan, Prayag Narain Temple. Nanarao Ghat, Panki Hanuman Temple and Shyam Hari Singhania Art Gallary.
There are also a number of other hotels, guest houses, lodges and dharamshalas in the city.
UP Tourism Accommodations
The city of Kanpur abounds in restaurants and eateries that cater to vegetarian and non-vegetarian palates. Some restaurants also serve Chinese and continental cuisine.
Kanpur is famous for leather goods. The main shopping centres in the city are; The Mall, Birhana Road, Gumti No. 5, Parade, Naveen Market, Meston road and P.P.N. Market. The city centre also offers the shopper a delightful array of State Emporia, viz. UPICA, UP Handloom Emporium, The Mall; Phulkari, Punjab Emporium and Manjusha, Bengal Emporium, The Mall.
Buses of the Uttar Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation and the SRTCs of neighbouring states connect Kanpur to various centres in the region, such as Lucknow, Allahabad, Varanasi, Agra, Unnao, Rae Bareilly, Kannauj and Jhansi.
Taxis, Tempo-rickshaws, Auto-rickshaws, Cycle-rickshaws, Horse tongas and City Bus Service are available for local transport. Private taxis are available from Canal Road Taxi Stand and from various hotels and travel agencies. Rates are negotiable.
The quiet and beautiful township of Bithoor is situated on the Kannauj Road, 27 km from Kanpur. Situated on the banks of the Ganga, this tranquil spot is of considerable historical and religious importance. According to Hindu scriptures Lord Brahma came to Utpalaranya, as it was known then, for the creation of mankind. The placewhich first witnessed the creation of mankind came to be known as Brahmavarta or the seat of Brahma. Later Brahma installed a Shivalinga which is still workshipped as Brahmeshwar Mahadeva at the principal ghat of Bithoor, the Brahmavarta Ghat. A nail of the horse shoe embedded in the steps of the ghat is an object of special reverence for devotees, considered to be of Brahmas horse, while going for Ashwamedha Yajna. On the completion of the yajna, the forests of Utpalaranya became known as Brahmavarta, from which the popular name, Bithoor is derived.
In later centuries Brahmavarta flourished as a capital of the kingdom of Utpalaranya, over which ruled the emperor Uttanpad. His son Dhruva penanced here in order to please Brahma. The place is pointed out to be Dhruva Teela.
There is a small pool inside Valmiki Ashram, famous as Sita-Kund. Sita Rasoi is still preserved, near which stands `Swarga Naseinee or Deep Malika Stambha, studded with niches all around for illumination. The tower has about 48 steps leading to its top which is surmounted by a cupola, from where one can heave a panoraic viewof the entire area. The existing Valmiki temple is said to have been rebuilt by Baji roa Peshwa in the 19th century.
Later Brahmavarta fell into obscurity, only to regain prominence in the 18th century. During 1753-75 under the rule of Nawab Shuja-ud-daula, the administration of Bithoor was entrusted to Almas Ali Kha, who erected a mosque near Lakshman Ghat on the right bank of Ganga.
Bithoor was the capital of the Pargana from 1811 to 819. After the departure of the courts, the place was assigned as a residence to Baji Rao, the deposed Peshwa. The Palace of Nana Sahib was reduced to rubble by the British in 1857 and the only traces remaining of it are some large well heads and broken palace walls.
The historic town of Bithoor, once famous by the name of `Bavan Ghaton ki Nagri, [city of 52 Ghat (river banks)] today left with only 29 ghats. The chief among them being-the Tuta Ghat, Patkapur Ghat, Khanderao Gaht, Rishikul Ghat, Kalvari Ghat, Hanuman Ghat, Chhappar Ghat, Dhruv Ghat, Bhairav Ghat, Sita-Kaushalya Ghat, Bramhavarta Ghat, Ganesh Ghat, Lakshman Ghat, Rambhushan Ghat, Pandav Ghat, Jhansi Rani Ghat, Mahapatra Ghat, Chhatta Ghat, Shuklan Ghat, Mahila Ghat, Baradari Ghat, Patthar Ghat, Bhajju Ghat, Gudara Ghat, Atmanand Saraswati Ghat, Maharaja Peshwa Ghat, Gulariya Ghat, Haridham Ghat, Shivdham Ghat and Kapileshwar Ghat. Of these 29 Ghats the most beautiful is the Patthar Ghat, built by Raja Tikaitrai. The other important Ghat of Bhthoor is the Kalvari Ghat, where a large Gaesh temple built by the Peshwas exists. Other notable sites at Bithoor are the Tripura Sundri Temple, Shivananda Ashram, Gyaneshwar Mahadev Temple, Janki Temple, Pantha Devi Temple, and Sri Gayatri Dham. Bithoor has no hotels at present, one can either choose to stay at Ashrams or return to Kanpur for nightstay. UP Government Tourist accommodation is available at tourist motel, Tatyaganj, 12 km. before Bithoor, on route to Farrukhabad.
59 km. Situated in Ghatampur tehsil, Bhitargaon houses a unique architectural specimen a brick temple belonging to the Gupta era. The very first shrine with a Shikara, it dates back to 600 AD.
Built of large bricks of size 0.47m x 0.22m x 0.07m, set in mud mortar, the total height of the temple is 15.41m. inside the temple only the sanctum or garbhagriha and the porch exists. Above the sanctum there was an upper chamber which was damaged when the spire was struck by lightning some time in the 18th century. The most remarked feature of the temple is its recessed plan.
The interior of the temple is plain but on the outside it is decorated with carved brickwork and numerous terracotta panels of skilful workmanship. The importance of the Bhitargaon temple lies in the fact that it is the sole surviving record of this early phase of temple architecture in India.
65 km from Kanpur, the ancient
site of Masanagar with innumerable munds deserved mention on account of the ancient temple of Muktadevi, which is said to have been built in Treta-Yug by Raja Bali. A large fair is held at Muktadevi temple on occasion of Kartik Poornima. Musanagar is also a rich archaeological site and has yielded a large number of artifacts and specimens of the post Harrapan, Shunga, Maurya and Kushana periods. The Muktadevi temple also offers an excellent view of the surrounding landscape. One can climb the roof of the temple dharamshala, from where can be seen the meandering Sengar river meeting the Yamuna down below, in a beautiful natural setting.
80 km. Situated on the banks of the river Ganga, Kannauj was the 7th century capital of Emperor Harshvardhans empire, which encompassed the entire region between the rivers Satlej and Narmada and eastern Bengal. While all traces of this past have vanished, Kannauj is famous for its manufacture of essence (itr) used in perfumes.
The capital of Uttar-Pradesh, Lucknow is around 80km from Kanpur, well connected with Trains/Buses/Taxi. Lucknow is a city synonymous with the Nawabi Culture. The imperialistic splendour and magnificence of the Nawabi era has been glorified and eulogized down the ages by writers, poets and historians alike. At the same time its mystical elegance and amorous ethos has caught the fascination of many world famous romantics. Known for its adab and Tehzeeb (cultural refinement), Lucknow is also associated with its legendary hospitality, leisurely moods of life, fabled edifices steeped in history, world renowned cuisine and exquisite Sham-e- Awadh. Tremors of time have not effaced Lucknow of its cultural heritage and traditions, which once contributed in creating the city incomparable in its times.More on Lucknow
Thousands of years ago, one of the saptarishis, Maharishi Angira, chose for his penance a place near Bithoo, presently situated in Ankui village today is known as the Angira Ashram. The ancient Jagannath temple here houses the original wooden idol of Lord Jagannath, said to be identical with that of the famous Jagannath temple.
Nawabganj Bird Sanctuary
43 km from Lucknow, along the Lucknow-Kanpur highway near Unnao, is the Nawabganj Bird Sanctuary. The sanctuary attractts rare Siberian migratory birds during winters, the main bird species being Pintain, Pigeon, Common teal, Shoveller, Pochard, Coot, Purple Moorhen and others. The ideal season for bird watching is between December and March. The Priyadarshini Motel of U.P. Tourism provides good boarding and lodging facilities at the sanctuary.
Archaeological Sites around Kanpur
Among other notable archaeological sites around Kanpur are the `Shiv temple at Nimbia Khera, the `Jagannath temple at Behta Buzurg and the `Lala Bhagat Pillar. Nimbia Khera is 12 km east of Ghatampur, where a 9th-10th Century old Shiva temple at Behta Buzurg is supposed to be 2000 years old. It is said that a week before the beginning of therainy season, drops of water falls from the stone which is embedded in the inner roof of the temple. The village of Behta Buzurg is 15 km from Ghatampur and 40 km from Kanpur, on the road going from Ghatampur to Sarh. Lala Bhagat, 92 km from Kanpur and 58 km from Derapur, houses the famous Kukkutadhwaj, more known as Lala Bhagat Pillar standing in the middle of a modern temple. This red sandstone six and a half feet high octagonal pillar with a small inscription was once surmounted by a cock capital, which broken from the pillar shaft lies nearby. Datable to the 1st century AD, the cock capital is of unique antiquity value.
Hanuman Temple, Panki, Kalpi, Sankisa, Nawabganj and Kampil.